Foreign Body Throat

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediateThe most common foreign body to get stuck in the throat is a fishbone in the piriform fossa (sinus) or the valleculae on either side of the median glossoepiglottic fold. Direct visualisation with a good light and tongue depressor/laryngoscope may reveal the […]

Otitis externa

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediateOtitis externa is inflammation of the external ear canal. It may be localised (where there is an infected hair follicle, potentially progressing to a boil in the ear canal) or generalised where there is more widespread inflammation of the skin and subdermis. […]

Vertigo – Ear Problem

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM Intermediate Diagnosis Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) Vestibular neuritis Labyrinthitis Meniere’s disease Epidemiology Can affect people of any age but commonly presents around 50 years. F > M. Affects previously well young or middle-aged adults. Affects previously well young or middle-aged adults. […]

Acute otitis media

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediateAcute otitis media (AOM) is defined as the presence of inflammation in the middle ear, associated with effusion and accompanied by the rapid onset of symptoms and signs of an ear infection. AOM may be caused by viral or bacterial infection. The […]

Perforated tympanic membrane

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediateIn perforated tympanic membrane, the patient may experience pain, reduced hearing and sometimes a bloody discharge. Causes: Infections of the middle ear (otitis media) Direct injury to the ear e.g. punch injury, poking objects into the ear A sudden loud noise e.g. […]

Post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediatePost-tonsillectomy haemorrhage occurs in 2 – 5% of patients. It may present as bleeding from the mouth or nose following a recent tonsillectomy or in young children who have recently undergone tonsillectomy who present with poor oral intake, malaise and/or any excessive […]

Epistaxis

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediateTo manage epistaxis, sequentially: Assess the person’s airway, breathing, pulse, and blood pressure Advise the patient to pinch the cartilaginous part of the nose firmly and hold it for 10 – 15 minutes without releasing the pressure, while leaning forwards (leaning forward […]

Peritonsillar abscess

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediatePeritonsillar abscess is a complication of acute tonsillitis. In peritonsillar abscess there is pus trapped between the tonsillar capsule and the lateral pharyngeal wall. Peritonsillar abscess usually affects teenagers and young adults but can occur in young children. Smoking is a risk […]

Vertigo

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediateVertigo refers to the perception of spinning or rotation of the person or their surroundings in the absence of any actual movement; it is a symptom, not a diagnosis. Vertigo can be disabling, affecting an individual’s ability to work or to drive; […]

Removal of FB from Ear

Last Updated on March 21, 2021 by FRCEM IntermediateTechniques  Forceps removal to grasp the object Hook removal to place a hook behind the object and pull Suction removal with small catheter Irrigation with water Complications Canal abrasions Bleeding Infection Otitis externa Otitis media Perforated tympanic membrane Granuloma formation Live Insects: […]