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- Use of normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The ABCD recommend 1L in the first hour, 2L in the next 2-4 hours and then 1L 4-6 hourly, with a reduced rate in those who are elderly or have cardiac disease.
- Once the blood glucose is below 14 mmol/l then 10% dextrose should be added at 125 ml/hr in addition to the crystalloid fluid replacement ongoing.
- Commence a fixed rate intravenous insulin infusion at 0.1 UNITS/kg
- initiated when the potassium level is below 5.5mmol/L
- Patients should receive low weight molecular heparin as per the hospital protocol.
- Cerebral oedema
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome
- Hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis