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Mechanism of Injury
- PCL Injury: Anterior force applied to the proximal tibia with the knee in flexion (e.g., when the knee hits the dashboard in an automobile accident).
- ACL: Quick stops and sharp cuts or turns create significant deceleration forces that can sprain or rupture the ACL.
- Hyperextension can result in injury to the ACL or PCL.
- Medial collateral ligament: injured as a result of direct lateral force to the knee (e.g., clipping in football).
- lateral collateral ligament: Conversely, a medial blow that creates a varus load can injure the lateral collateral ligament.
- Meniscus: Sudden twisting or pivoting motions create shear forces that can injure the meniscus.
Testing for Rotator Cuff
- Supraspinatus: Empty can test
- Infraspinatus: External rotation lag sign
- Subscapularis: Internal rotation lag sign test, Gerbers lift off
test, Belly press sign