Large Joint Examination

Last Updated on by frcemuser

Knee Injury

Mechanism of Injury

  • PCL Injury: Anterior force applied to the proximal tibia with the knee in flexion (e.g., when the knee hits the dashboard in an automobile accident).
  • ACL: Quick stops and sharp cuts or turns create significant deceleration forces that can sprain or rupture the ACL.
  • Hyperextension can result in injury to the ACL or PCL.
  • Medial collateral ligament: injured as a result of direct lateral force to the knee (e.g., clipping in football).
  • lateral collateral ligament: Conversely, a medial blow that creates a varus load can injure the lateral collateral ligament.
  • Meniscus: Sudden twisting or pivoting motions create shear forces that can injure the meniscus.



Shoulder Injury

Rotator cuff



Testing for Rotator Cuff

  • Supraspinatus: Empty can test
  • Infraspinatus: External rotation lag sign
  • Subscapularis: Internal rotation lag sign test, Gerbers lift off
    test, Belly press sign

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